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দেশ স্বাধীন হওয়ারও ১০ বছর আগে ১৯৬১ সালে পাবনার ঈশ্বরদীতে নেওয়া হয় রূপপুর পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুেকন্দ্র স্থাপনের উদ্যোগ। প্রকল্পের জন্য অধিগ্রহণ করা হয় ২৬০ একর জমি।

১৯৬৪ সালে জাহাজে করে আনা হয়েছিল প্রয়োজনীয় যন্ত্রপাতিও। কিন্তু পাকিস্তান সরকার জাহাজটি চট্টগ্রামের পরিবর্তে করাচিতে নিয়ে যায়। রূপপুর থেকে প্রকল্প সরিয়ে করাচিতে নিয়ে যাওয়ার প্রস্তাব করা হয়। পরে বিনিয়োগকারী দেশ কানাডা ও যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের নানামুখী শর্তের কারণে পাকিস্তানেও তা বাস্তবায়িত হয়নি। অপূর্ণ সেই স্বপ্ন বাস্তবে রূপ দিতে বর্তমান সরকারের উদ্যোগে ২০১০ সালে পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র স্থাপনের পদক্ষেপ নেওয়া হয়। ২০১৫ সালের ২৫ ডিসেম্বর পাবনার রূপপুরে দুই হাজার ৪০০ মেগাওয়াট বিদ্যুত্ উত্পাদন ক্ষমতাসম্পন্ন পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র নির্মাণ করতে রাশিয়ার এটমস্ট্রয় এক্সপোর্ট নামে একটি প্রতিষ্ঠানের সঙ্গে চুক্তি সই করে বাংলাদেশ সরকার। চুক্তি বাস্তবায়নের সময়কাল ধরা হয় সাত বছর। বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্রটির প্রথম ইউনিট ২০২৩ সালে এবং দ্বিতীয় ইউনিট ২০২৪ সালে উত্পাদন শুরু করবে।

কেন এই উদ্যোগ

আমাদের দেশে বিদ্যুতের প্রচুর ঘাটতি রয়েছে।

এই ঘাটতি মেটাতে পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা রাখতে পারে। চীন, ভারত, কোরিয়াসহ এশিয়ার বেশির ভাগ জনবহুল দেশ পরমাণু বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র স্থাপন করেছে ও করছে। বিদ্যুত্ একটি দেশের অর্থনীতির চালিকাশক্তি। দেশের অর্থনীতির সঙ্গে বিদ্যুতের সম্পর্ক  ওতপ্রোত হলেও জনসংখ্যার মাত্র ৬০ শতাংশ বিদ্যুতসেবা পায়।

বর্তমানে বিশ্বের ৩০টি দেশে ৪৪৯টি পরমাণু বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র রয়েছে। সেগুলো থেকে উত্পন্ন বিদ্যুতের পরিমাণ মোট উত্পন্ন বিদ্যুতের প্রায় ১২ শতাংশ। ১৪টি দেশে আরো ৬৫টি পরমাণু বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র নির্মাণাধীন। ২০২৫ সাল নাগাদ ২৭টি দেশে ১৭৩টি পরমাণু বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র স্থাপনের প্রক্রিয়া চলছে। এগুলোর মধ্যে ৩০টি পরমাণু বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্রই নির্মাণ করা হবে পরমাণু বিশ্বে নবাগত দেশগুলোতে। আমাদের পার্শ্ববর্তী দেশ ভারতে বর্তমানে ২১টি পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুত্ চুল্লি চালু রয়েছে। নির্মাণাধীন রয়েছে ছয়টি। চীনে বর্তমানে ৩০টি পরমাণু বিদ্যুত্ চুল্লি রয়েছে। নির্মাণাধীন ২৪টি। দেশটি ২০২০ সাল নাগাদ ৩০ হাজার মেগাওয়াট পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুত্ উত্পাদনের লক্ষ্যমাত্রা স্থির করেছে। রূপপুর পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুত্ প্রকল্পের উত্পাদন শুরু হলে সেটি দেশের বিদ্যুত্ ঘাটতি মেটাতে সক্ষম হবে—এমন আশাবাদ সংশ্লিষ্টদের।

কত খরচ হবে

রূপপুর পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুত্ প্রকল্পের ব্যয় সরকারি হিসাবে এক লাখ ১৩ হাজার ৯২ কোটি ৯১ লাখ টাকা। তবে এই ব্যয় আরো বাড়তে পারে। অবশ্য রাশিয়ার সঙ্গে সই হওয়া চুক্তি অনুযায়ী প্রকল্পের ব্যয় নির্ধারিত হয়েছিল এক লাখ এক হাজার কোটি টাকা। শুরুতে ধারণা করা হয়েছিল, সেটাই এই প্রকল্পের সম্পূর্ণ ব্যয়। তবে পরে দেখা যায়, প্রকল্পে বহু লুক্কায়িত ব্যয় (হিডেন কস্ট) রয়েছে। এ প্রকল্পে প্রথম পর্যায়ের কাজ—সমীক্ষা, ভূমি উন্নয়ন, নকশা প্রণয়ন, কিছু ভৌত অবকাঠামো তৈরি প্রভৃতির জন্য ব্যয় হয় প্রায় চার হাজার ৪০০ কোটি টাকা। এটা হিসাবে ধরে প্রকল্পের ব্যয় বেড়ে দাঁড়ায় এক লাখ পাঁচ হাজার কোটি টাকার বেশি। রাশিয়া এই টাকার ৯০ শতাংশ ঋণ হিসেবে বাংলাদেশকে দিচ্ছে। অবশিষ্ট ১০ শতাংশ জোগান দেবে সরকার। এ ছাড়া পরবর্তী সময়ে ব্যয় বাড়লে তা সরকারকে বহন করতে হবে।

রক্ষণাবেক্ষণ

প্রকল্পটির রক্ষণাবেক্ষণের জন্য বাংলাদেশ থেকে দক্ষ জনশক্তি তৈরির লক্ষ্যে রাশিয়ায় প্রশিক্ষণ দেওয়া হচ্ছে। বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীদের রাশিয়ায় তিন বছরমেয়াদি মাস্টার্স প্রোগ্রাম এবং পাঁচ বছরমেয়াদি স্পেশালিস্ট প্রগ্রামে পড়াশোনার ব্যবস্থা করা হয়েছে। এ ছাড়া পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র চালু হওয়ার পরের কয়েক বছর প্রকল্পটি রক্ষণাবেক্ষণে সহযোগিতা করবে রাশিয়া।

নিরাপত্তা

জাপানের ফুকুশিমা আর রাশিয়ার চেরনোবিল দুর্ঘটনার পরে নিরাপত্তার বিষয়ে প্রশ্ন আসাটাই স্বাভাবিক। রাশিয়ার সঙ্গে সই হওয়া চুক্তি অনুসারে, রূপপুর পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুত্ প্রকল্পে ব্যবহার করা হবে মস্কোর সর্বশেষ আধুনিক প্রযুক্তি ‘ভিভিইআর ১২০০’। বিশ্বের পারমাণবিক বিদ্যুতকেন্দ্র নিয়ে ঘটে যাওয়া দুর্ঘটনাগুলো মাথায় রেখেই রাশিয়া তার সর্বশেষ মডেলের আধুনিকায়ন করে। আর তাই সর্বোচ্চ নিরাপত্তা নিশ্চিত করেই বাস্তবায়িত হচ্ছে রূপপুর প্রকল্প। রাশিয়ার নবোভরনেজ ও লেনিনগ্রাদে ভিভিইআর ১২০০ মডেলটি চালু করা হয়েছে। শিগগির তা থেকে উত্পাদিত বিদ্যুত্ দেশটির জাতীয় গ্রিডে যুক্ত হবে। ভবিষ্যতে তুরস্ক ও ফিনল্যান্ডসহ বিশ্বের আরো অনেক দেশে এটি ব্যবহার করা হবে। রিখটার স্কেলে ৯ মাত্রার ভূমিকম্প সহ্য করার সক্ষমতা রয়েছে এই মডেলটির। আর পাবনা জেলায় এখন পর্যন্ত সবচেয়ে শক্তিশালী ভূমিকম্প হলো ৭.৮ রিখটার স্কেল। বাংলাদেশের ভূমিকম্পের ইতিহাসে এই মাত্রার ভূমিকম্প বিরল। রাশিয়া বলছে, এই মডেলটি যেকোনো ধরনের বিমান হামলা থেকেও রক্ষা পেতে সক্ষম।

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৪৫ তম বিসিএস প্রিলিমিনারি প্রশ্ন সমাধান

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